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Modafinil: A Thorough Review

*This white paper is intended as a discussion of Modafinil use based upon peer-reviewed research, user self-reports, and official findings. It is not intended as a substitute for medical advice. Patients should always consult with their doctors before starting a new supplement or medication to avoid potentially harmful interactions.

 

What is Modafinil? What are Nootropics?

 “Smart drugs” have been a staple of science fiction for decades. What would happen if a new medication enabled users to become much smarter or otherwise enhance their mental abilities – just by taking a pill?

Recently, this concept began to gain widespread attention through movies like “Limitless” which focus on the question of what an ordinary person could do if endowed with extraordinary skills.

As of yet, there’s no “Limitless” or “Lucy” in sight – all known medications for human cognitive enhancement seem to have an effect ceiling, enhancing users’ abilities by only a matter of degree. But a growing number of people from students to executives have been trying out “nootropics” – drugs or supplements that are said to temporarily enhance the user’s mental abilities.

Many companies sell “nootropic supplements,” which they claim will use vitamins, minerals, or herbs to drastically enhance the user’s cognitive function. However, such “natural supplements” are largely unregulated and have often been found ineffective by European regulatory authorities. Some have even been found to contain potentially dangerous banned ingredients.[1]

A few prescription medications have been found to have side effects of enhancing attention, motivation, and possibly boosting learning. These are not currently legal to prescribe as nootropics in the U.K., but their effectiveness in boosting performance on some tasks has been confirmed by randomized controlled trials. Modafinil is one of these.[2]

Modafinil is a medication that is prescribed by doctors to promote wakefulness in people with narcolepsy, and to promote attention in people with ADHD. It works by affecting at least two chemical systems in the brain, resulting in less potential for addiction and a less “intense” effect than its cousin Adderall.

Prior to 2010, Modafinil was also prescribed to treat sleep disruptions from other sources such as apnea and shift work sleep disorder; but a 2010 safety report suggested that the risks of side effects outweighed the benefits for people with sleep apnea or shift work sleep disorder.[3]

While it is not currently legal to prescribe Modafinil to healthy people for cognitive enhancement in the U.K.. However, the U.K. does permit individuals who feel the risks are acceptable to import Modafinil for their own personal use without a prescription.

Some have criticized that policy as increasing rather than reducing risk, since it encourages Modafinil users and potential users to obtain medications from overseas factories that are not subject to the same regulatory oversight as the NHS supply of Modafinil.[4]

Is Modafinil an Effective Nootropic?

Modafinil has been studied extensively for safety and side effects as part of the process to become approved to treat sleep disorders. Several laboratory studies have also been conducted of Modafinil’s nootropic effects on healthy people.

Here we’ll discuss an overview of the findings on Modafinil’s effects in healthy people, and discuss the domains of cognitive function that scientists test when deciding if a medication is an effective nootropic.

In 2015, the journal European Neuropsychopharmacology published a literature review in which researchers A.K. Brem & R.M. Battleday looked at English-language studies of the nootropic effects of Modafinil published in peer-reviewed journals from 1990-2014.

All randomised controlled trials of Modafinil showed improved executive function in people using Modafinil compared to control groups. This was true regardless of whether the participants were fatigued, well-rested, high-IQ (>115), or average-IQ (<115).

About half of these trials also showed improvement to learning and memory, while the other half did not show benefits in these areas. In these areas, benefits seemed stronger for fatigued and average-IQ participants, while well-rested and high-IQ test subjects showed little or no improvement to learning and memory with Modafinil.

The researchers found that a few studies had shown impairments in divergent creativity under the influence of Modafinil, with Modafinil-users coming up with fewer problem-solving ideas than control groups. It was thought that this decline may have been a side effect of Modafinil’s ability to focus attention tightly on a singular task. Further discussion of the inverse relationship between creativity and goal-oriented focus will be conducted below.

Brem & Battleday noted that improvements in attention and learning in well-rested people were more commonly seen when studies used complex testing and analysis methods, suggesting that simpler measurements may have missed some real-world benefits of Modafinil for healthy people.

They also found it significant that the literature on Modafinil showed no consistent evidence of long-term mood changes, increased need for sleep, or addictive chemical potential.

Researchers caution that users should still be mindful of a potential for psychological dependence – the formation of a psychological belief that the user “needs” Modafinil – even though the medication does not have a chemically addictive effect on the brain. Many activities which are perceived as helpful to users can become subjects of psychological addiction, which can sometimes be serious.

Scientists have developed many ways for testing and discussing human cognitive performance. This is a complex area, because there are many different components that affect how “smart” we are. Some areas which are commonly tested when studying human cognitive performance include:

 

Attention

“Attention” is the ability to focus on something and complete a task, without becoming distracted or losing interest.

Some healthy people have used nootropics in hopes of enhancing their attention, motivation, and ultimately academic performance.[5]

Adderall – a mixture of salts of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine – has long been used to treat ADHD. For many years its stimulant properties and ability to focus attention made it the “gold standard” for cognitive enhancement.

However, in recent years Modafinil has begun to overtake Adderall as a drug of interest, both for treating ADHD and artificially enhancing attention in healthy people. Modafinil’s more favorable risk profile features a lower risk of addiction than Adderall, no potential to get “high,” and fewer problematic after-effects.

 

Executive Function

Executive function refers to the ability to make conscious and disciplined choices. It can be thought of as you being the “executive” of your brain – making decisions about what you want to do, and then ensuring that those orders are carried out to their completion.

This is another area of concern for doctors and scientists in recent years. The advent of technology has made it possible for a person to complete many tasks in one day – but studies have found that “task switching” can deplete our executive function and make it difficult to complete important tasks.[6]

Some healthy people have reported that Modafinil increases their motivation to get things done[7] as well as their focus, and these findings are supported by randomized controlled trials.[8]

 

Creativity

Creativity is a complicated concept which involves both emotional and cognitive components. To have creative output, one must both have the ability to pay attention and get things done – and the ability to originate and explore new, unique views or ideas.

As the origination of new ideas, creativity is sometimes inversely correlated with linear thought processes such as the ability to follow an established plan to its conclusion.

Studies have found that goal-oriented thinking, such as competition for cash prizes,, actually result in fewer new ideas and lower-quality creative projects as participants focus on getting the project done efficiently rather than on deep thought or experimentation.[9]

It is perhaps not surprising, then, that attention-focusing nootropics such as Modafinil might have a slight negative effect on divergent creativity – that is, the ability to come up with many different solutions to a problem.[10]

However, many creative people still report benefitting from Modafinil due to its motivation- and attention-enhancing effects.[11]

Fatigue

Fatigue is another common modern problem, with an ever-growing proportion of the population reporting sleep difficulties and sleep deprivation.

All cognitive functions – particularly attention, executive function, and learning – become worse with fatigue.

The ultimate solution to fatigue is sleep. During sleep, unique neurological and biochemical processes happen which, to date, cannot be replaced by any pill. Sleep plays an important role in consolidating learning and memory, as well refreshing the brain’s reaction time and even strengthening the immune system.[12]

It is important for cognitive optimizers to understand the role of sleep, as prolonged sleep deprivation will lead to impaired performance – and taking more stimulants will only make the problem worse. Modafinil has been found to cause cognitive decline due to sleep disruptions when administered at high doses, and some users report sleep disruption with even moderate doses of Modafinil.[13]

However, Modafinil can fight the effects of fatigue-related performance declines in situations where it is desirable to delay sleep for just a few hours.

Modafinil has been studied for use in military personnel in combat zones, who may occasionally need to stay awake and alert for long periods of time. In these tests, Modafinil has been shown to successfully counteract the cognitive declines associated with fatigue for brief periods of time.[14]

Intelligence Quotient

IQ, or “Intelligence Quotient,” is a combined measure of a number of abilities including learning ability, problem-solving ability, and critical thinking ability.

The idea of “IQ” has been increasingly criticized in recent years as scientists learn that “IQ” actually measures many distinct skills – and does not effectively measure some skills that are important for real-world cognitive performance, such as attention, discipline, and divergent creativity.[15][16][17]

Still, IQ is frequently used as shorthand for discussing a person’s “intelligence,” and it does correlate well to a person’s ability to learn facts and solve problems.[18]

Interestingly, some research has suggested that people with low-to-average baseline IQs experience greater performance benefits from Modafinil, while people who score high on IQ tests without medication show smaller performance improvements.[19]

This suggests that there may indeed be a “limit” to how much this particular nootropic can improve performance, with its benefits being greater for people who are fatigued or otherwise not in peak cognitive condition.
Learning

 “Learning” is often used synonymously with “memory” – the ability to learn new information, skills, and associations. Scientists divide learning and memory into many subtypes, including the abilities to remember events, information, and to perform motor skills.

Learning is measured by scientists in a number of ways, including speed (how many repetitions it takes to incorporate new information), duration (how long newly learned associations last), and retention (what percentage of new information is retained).[20]

Test results have been mixed when it comes to Modafinil’s effect on learning and memory, with some tests showing learning improvements in users of Modafinil while others show no effect.[21]

However even if Modafinil does not make learning faster and and memorization easier, its motivating and attention-focusing effects may assist users in devoting time to studying and practicing skills.[22]

For those considering studying 24/7, it is again important to note that learning and memory are ultimately harmed by long-term use of stimulants to avoid sleep. Unique information-consolidating functions occur in the brain during sleep which cannot occur during wakefulness.[23]

The Controversy

Nootropics are controversial for several reasons.

Advocates of nootropics argue that technology can, and should, be used to enhance natural human abilities. These supporters argue that nootropics are no different from any other piece of technology: they can be used to good effect or ill effect, and they have the potential to improve our lives if used properly.[24]

Opponents argue that nootropics introduce unacceptable risks of side effects to healthy people, or that they may negatively impact society and culture. Some common arguments against nootropic use include:

 

Pathologizing the Human Condition

With Modafinil and other drugs often being used by people who are already healthy and just want an extra “boost,” there is concern that we may be developing a culture which pathologizes the normal human condition.

Some fear that a culture where the natural abilities of healthy people are not considered to be “good enough,” and where important parts of life such as non-productive down time are considered “wasteful.”

Alarm has been raised that in some modern cultures, pursuits such as relationships, art, and reading which are healthy to the individual but are not economically productive are being devalued and even considered “unnecessary” by many workers and authority figures.

Opponents of nootropic use ask: if healthy people feel they need medications to function at acceptable levels, should we give them medications, or should we fix the culture that now demands superhuman performance at the expense of quality of life?

Development of Natural Abilities

Other opponents of nootropics have expressed concerns that if nootropics are available, people may opt to simply take a pill instead of developing valuable skills such as discipline and attention to detail. Critics point to dystopias such as Aldous Huxley’s ‘Brave New World’ in which drugs have replaced meaningful human effort and interaction.

While it is in theory possible to both develop one’s natural abilities to a high degree and take nootropics, there is concern that a “quick fix” culture may lead to a devaluing of the work that is needed to build one’s neural networks to their full potential.

This could actually result in a net decrease in ability, if our individuals or cultures do not do the groundwork necessary to develop human abilities to their fullest potential due to the perception that taking “smart drugs” is good enough.

 

Income Inequality

Some have voiced concern that nootropics, cybernetics, genetic engineering, and other methods of enhancing human abilities may further exaggerate the gap between the rich and the poor.

In a traditional “meritocracy,” people earn money based on how much they contribute to society – not, ideally, on how much money they start out with. But with some nations already feeling the pain of for-profit healthcare and higher-education, the ability to buy even more self-enhancements may set the bar for competition too high for those without money to compete.

These critics say that we already live in a world where the ultra-wealthy routinely undergo elective surgeries to make themselves prettier. What if surgeries or drugs existed to make them smarter? In such an environment, one’s IQ and ultimately one’s achievements might ultimately depend on how much money your parents had.

It is arguable that there are many items of greater concern than nootropics when it comes to this subject: high-quality education, networking connections, high-quality nutrition, and ubiquitousness of environmental neurotoxins such as lead in poor neighborhoods[25] are already issues that likely have greater effects on perpetuating income inequality than the availability of Modafinil.

Genetic engineering – a possible near-future development – is also likely to be of greater concern, as it is likely to be much more expensive, and therefore much less accessible to the poor, than any nootropic medication.

Still, social justice advocates say that it is important to be mindful of the cost of any new developments, and of their availability to people born into low-income families.

 

Concern about risk and safety.

The culture of the medical community is based on the Hippocratic oath: “First, do no harm.”

For this reason, researchers and doctors generally oppose prescribing medications to healthy people. All medications carry risks of side effects, and under the Hippocratic oath it’s not considered appropriate to introduce risk unless the disease carries a greater risk of harm than the medication. For healthy people, normal human weaknesses such as fatigue or inability to focus are not considered to be diseases.

In the case of Modafinil, serious side effects are rare in healthy people. Most users experience only mild side effects that go away if they stop taking Modafinil. However, serious side effects have been reported frequently enough that doctors have now stopped prescribing Modafinil for sleep apnea and shift work sleep disorder.[26]

The risk of dangerous side effects is higher in people with hypertension and heart problems. Before prescribing Modafinil, U.K. doctors typically require an ECG to rule out the presence of undiagnosed heart problems.

Pregnant and nursing women advised not to use Modafinil, as it does appear in breast milk and its effects on fetuses and babies are unknown.

Alcohol use is not advised with Modafinil, as serious interactions between Modafinil and alcohol can occur.

It is recommended that anyone considering taking Modafinil ask their doctor first to make sure it is safe for them, as all medications may interact with existing health conditions or other medications.

It is also important that potential Modafinil users learn to recognize the warning signs of serious side effects, which in rare cases may require hospitalization.

Still, many consumers feel that they should be allowed to make their own decisions about benefits and risks of the medications they take. Perhaps in recognition of this fact, the U.K. has made it legal for citizens to import Modafinil from overseas and take it without a prescription.

Supporters of using Modafinil as a nootropic argue that nootropics are falsely stigmatized due to a false association with addictive drugs. Non-prescription use of medication has traditionally been associated with pleasure-seeking “highs,” which can lead to overdose and medical problems.

This association between nootropics and addictive drugs has been strengthened by the frequent use of Adderall – which can produce recreational highs, and has addictive potential – as a nootropic to enhance cognitive performance.

Modafinil is different from Adderall in that it does not produce a recreational high and has been shown to have little, if any, addictive potential.

Advocates of nootropics argue that this puts Modafinil in a fundamentally different class, as a drug which can increase creative and economic productivity but which not have meaningful use as a recreational or addictive drug.

 

Despite these objections, supporters of nootropics say that these “smart drugs” are just like any other technology: they can, and should, be used to improve human abilities and productivity.[27]

Many supporters of nootropics reference fears that were voiced at the advent of previous new technologies, ranging from the printing press to computers and the Internet. New technologies, they say, are often greeted with concerns about how they will change existing culture. But they nearly always end up leading to advancements in productivity and standards of living.

These controversies are likely to continue for some time, as research on the cognitive enhancement effects of psychoactive drugs is fairly new.

As attitudes are changing in some circles – with some doctors and scientists moving away from the idea that the idea of “smart drugs” is inherently bad – we are likely to continue to see new nootropics come to market, and new studies regarding the safety and effectiveness of existing medications as nootropics.

 

How does Modafinil work?

Modafinil is thought to affect the dopamine system of the brain in at least two ways. Like many other psychoactive medications, it may also have other effects on the brain that are not yet understood.

The medication is known to increase the amount of dopamine – a stimulating neurotransmitter – in parts of the brain related to attention and wakefulness. Modafinil itself may also mimic dopamine, further increasing the brain’s perception of the amount of dopamine it has available.[28]

To understand Modafinil’s effects, it is useful to compare it two other medications whose effects are more well-known to the public: the allergy medicine Benadryl, and the stimulant Adderall.

Adderall is a mix of amphetamine compounds which, as the name suggests, is related to the addictive stimulants amphetamine and methamphetamine. Adderall has found legitimate uses in focusing attention, it can also create a sense of euphoria which can be addictive, and can lead to harmful mental and physical health costs if overused.

Both Modafinil and Adderall act on the dopamine system, which may be what enables both of them to treat ADHD and focus attention in healthy people.

However, Adderall also acts on another stimulant system – the norepinephrine system. It also prompts the body to release adrenaline – the same euphoria-inducing chemical that is released in response to fear.

Modafinil does not act on these systems. This may account for why users who have tried both drugs describe the effects of Modafinil as being much less “intense” than Adderall, and as focusing the attention without overstimulating.

In addition to acting on the dopamine system like Adderall, Modafinil also acts on the histamine system in the brain.

The histamine system is one of the brain’s “guardians” of the wake/sleep boundary. High levels of histamine promote wakefulness, while dropping histamine levels are one of the brain’s signals that it’s time to sleep.

This is why anti-histamine medications such as Benadryl can make people sleepy by blocking histamine in the brain – and likely why Modafinil is described as promoting “wakefulness” and warding off sleep, without making use of norepinephrine stimulation or adrenaline like Adderall does.

This means that Modafinil has a much lower risk of addiction than euphoria-inducing Adderall, and less risk related to overstimulation of the brain or of the body’s adrenaline systems. However, Modafinil does carry its own medical risks which can be serious. We will discuss these in the next section.

Some users of Modafinil have reported problems similar to those of Adderall, including an unpleasant or disruptive sensation of “hyperfocus,” inability to sleep after using Modafinil, and manic behavior.[29] These unpleasant effects do occur, but they are reported by <10% of Modafinil users.

 

What Are The Risks of Modafinil?

Modafinil has undergone extensive safety testing as part of its ongoing approval to be prescribed by doctors to treat sleep disorders. It has been deemed safe enough to prescribe to treat narcolepsy, sleep apnea, and shift work sleep disorder.

The effects of long-term use (daily for more than three months) have not been well-studied, because doctors typically do not prescribe it to patients for more than 12 weeks.

According to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, Modafinil is not recommended for people with uncontrolled high blood pressure, cardiac arrhythmias, history of psychosis, depression, mania, or alcohol or drug abuse.

Typically, an ECG to rule out cardiac arrhythmias is required before starting treatment with Modafinil.

Potential side effects of using Modafinil as directed include:[30]

  • Common side effects of Modafinil (occurring in 1-10% of patients) include anxiety, headache, backache, difficulty sleeping, diarrhea, dizziness, nausea, indigestion, and sinus irritation.Some people who have used Modafinil as a nootropic have reported stopping because of these side effects.
  • Uncommon side effects (occurring in 0.1-1% of patients) include abnormal heart rhythm, abnormal blood pressure, chest pain, inability to empty bladder, chills, confusion, depression, dyskinesia (twitching), fever, high blood sugar, memory loss, mood changes, eye problems, and throat irritation.These side effects prompted UK regulatory authorities to stop prescribing Modafinil to promote wakefulness in people with sleep apnea and shift work sleep disorder.
  • Rare side effects of Modafinil (occurring in 0.01-0.1% of patients) include abnormal liver function tests, manic behavior, decreased platelets and white blood cell counts, water retention, trouble breathing, suicidal thoughts, hepatitis, inflammation of the heart, painful red or swollen mouth, and toxic epidermal necrolysis.These effects are very uncommon, but can be extremely serious.The appearance of a rash while using Modafinil (occurring in about 1 case per 120 patients) can sometimes signal more serious multi-organ system problems.

    A rash appearing while using Modafinil requires evaluation by a doctor to rule out the need for treatment to avoid dangerous complications.

    In the course of monitoring 1,585 of patients who have taken Modafinil, one fatality resulting from multi-organ system reaction has been reported.

  • Low risk of allergic reaction.No serious instances of allergic reaction were reported during safety testing, but some possible cases have been reported in recent post-marketing research.Anyone taking a new medication or supplement should be alert for potential allergic reactions, and seek medical attention if swelling of face, eyes, lips, tongue or larynx occurs.[31]

Like any medication, Modafinil also interacts with certain other drugs and health conditions.

 

UK MHRA Classification of Modafinil

The U.K. has taken a middle road on the legality healthy people using Modafinil as a nootropic drug. While it is illegal to prescribe or sell Modafinil for this purpose inside the U.K., it is legal for U.K. citizens to buy and use small amounts of Modafinil from overseas.

Critics have argued that this legislation introduces risk, rather than mitigating it. Customers who buy Modafinil from overseas are not receiving the regulatory protection of the NHS, which strictly overseas the factories it obtains Modafinil from to prescribe to patients.

As a result, U.K. citizens who buy Modafinil from overseas sources may be receiving a product that is impure, counterfeit, or has unreliable dosage.

Supporters of nootropics would ultimately like to see a system in which users could legally purchase Modafinil from sources overseen by the British NHS to assure the quality and safety of their product.

But until that day comes, Modafinil users and supporters of nootropic research say they are glad that the U.K. permits personal use of Modafinil without punishment – unlike the United States, where Modafinil is considered a controlled substance, and using it without a prescription is a punishable offense.

The recent passage of the Psychoactive Substances Act has raised some confusion as to the legality of importation and possession of Modafinil. The PSA forbids the import of psychoactive substances – unless they are recognized as medicinal products, which Modafinil is.

The letter of the law and user accounts appear to support the idea that it is still legal to import Modafinil to the U.K.. However, users are advised to leave their Modafinil at home and not carry it on their person lest they be suspected of selling it to others, which is illegal on U.K. soil.

The U.K. does limit the amount of Modafinil which may be imported in a shipment, due to concerns that people who are not medical providers may attempt to sell Modafinil to others without a proper medical consultation. Conservative estimates are that up to 90 doses of Modafinil can be imported safely for personal use, though some users report importing larger amounts without legal trouble.

Of note, doctors do NOT recommend using Modafinil daily over long periods of time. To avoid desensitizing the brain and disrupting underlying regulatory mechanisms, it is typically prescribed to patients for a maximum of 12 weeks.

 

Conclusion

As with all medications, there are benefits, drawbacks, and open questions regarding the use of Modafinil as a nootropic.

 

The Good

It is known that Modafinil can significantly increase attention and executive function in healthy people. It is also known that Modafinil can successfully fight the effects of fatigue and improve performance under short-term sleep deprivation.

About half of tests of Modafinil showed improvements to learning and memory, with these effects being stronger in people who were suffering from fatigue or had low-to-average baseline IQs.

In their review of randomised controlled trials of Modafinil to date, Brem & Battleday suggested that existing tests may have downplayed the benefits of Modafinil to attention and learning by using methodologies which were too simple to encompass and calculate the full range of these tasks.

Modafinil has also been found to have fewer risks when used as a nootropic than Adderall, which is also used to increase attention, executive function, and to fight fatigue. Modafinil has little to no addictive potential and less risk of overstimulation of the brain.[32]

The Bad

Some users of Modafinil experience side effects which range from unpleasant to medically dangerous. Most users report no negative side effects, but <10% experience discomfort or impaired cognitive function due to distracting side effects while using Modafinil.

Dangerous side effects occur for fewer than 1 in 100 people who take Modafinil. The frequency was high enough for doctors to determine that Modafinil should no longer be prescribed to treat temporary or complicated sleep conditions, such as sleep apnea and shift work sleep disorder.

People considering using Modafinil without a prescription should consult with a doctor about any medical conditions or other medications they may be taking. People with some medical conditions should not use Modafinil.

Serious side effects, including skin rash while using Modafinil, should always be evaluated by a doctor.

In studies spanning 1,585 users of Modafinil, one case of death has been reported as a result of a severe multi-organ system reaction to the drug.[33]

The Unknown

The effects of long-term Modafinil use have been studied only when it is used as intended for sleep disorders – that is, for 12 weeks or less, to treat acute problems. The effects of long-term frequent use of Modafinil have not been well-studied.

The cultural effects of widespread nootropic use, including how nootropics interact with the development of natural abilities, have also not been well-studied.

Users of Modafinil can minimize risks from these unknown possibilities by using Modafinil sparingly, and maintaining good practices related to attention span, discipline, and good sleep habits in addition to using Modafinil.

Whether we will ever see a “Limitless” future remains unclear – but one thing is certain. As new medications, therapies, and technologies are developed, our range of options for altering our own brain function will increase.

We can begin to prepare for this future now by considering the medical, cultural, and ethical implications of emerging technologies – and making informed choices about their use.

 

[1] NHS Choices: A Behind The Headlines Report. (2011, June). Retrieved from http://www.nhs.uk/news/2011/05May/Documents/BtH_supplements.pdf

[2] Battleday, R., & Brem, A. (2015). Modafinil for cognitive neuroenhancement in healthy non-sleep-deprived subjects: A systematic review. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 25(11), 1865-1881. doi:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2015.07.028

[3] Modafinil: European Medicines Agency recommends restricted use. (2010). Drug Safety Update. Retrieved from http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20140625093154/http://www.mhra.gov.uk/Safetyinformation/DrugSafetyUpdate/CON090901

[4] Why Transhumanists Are Angry About the UK’s New Drug Law. (n.d.). Retrieved March 23, 2017, from https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/transhumanists-are-angry-about-the-uks-new-drug-law-psychoactive-substances-act

[5] Whetstine, L. M. (2015). Cognitive Enhancement: Treating or Cheating? Seminars in Pediatric Neurology, 22(3), 172-176. doi:10.1016/j.spen.2015.05.003

[6] Hamilton, R., Vohs, K. D., Sellier, A., & Meyvis, T. (2011). Being of two minds: Switching mindsets exhausts self-regulatory resources. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 115(1), 13-24. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2010.11.005

[7] Why I Use Modafinil. (n.d.). Retrieved from Why I Use Modafinil (Provigil) Dave Asprey – https://blog.bulletproof.com/q-a-why-i-use-modafinil-provigil/

[8]  Battleday, R., & Brem, A. (2015). Modafinil for cognitive neuroenhancement in healthy non-sleep-deprived subjects: A systematic review. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 25(11), 1865-1881.

[9] Amabile, T. (n.d.). How to Kill Creativity. Creative Management and Development Creative management and development, 18-24. doi:10.4135/9781446213704.n2

[10]  Battleday, R., & Brem, A. (2015). Modafinil for cognitive neuroenhancement in healthy non-sleep-deprived subjects: A systematic review. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 25(11), 1865-1881.

[11] Why I Use Modafinil. (n.d.). Retrieved from Why I Use Modafinil (Provigil) Dave Asprey – https://blog.bulletproof.com/q-a-why-i-use-modafinil-provigil/

[12] Lim, J., & Dinges, D. F. (2010). A meta-analysis of the impact of short-term sleep deprivation on cognitive variables. Psychological Bulletin, 136(3), 375-389. doi:10.1037/a0018883

[13] Turner, C., Belyavin, A., & Nicholson, A. (2014). Duration of activity and mode of action of modafinil: Studies on sleep and wakefulness in humans. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 28(7), 643-654. doi:10.1177/0269881113508173

[14] Baranski, J. V., Cian, C., Esquivié, D., Pigeau, R. A., & Raphel, C. (1998). Modafinil during 64 hr of sleep deprivation: Dose-related effects on fatigue, alertness, and cognitive performance. Military Psychology, 10(3), 173-193. doi:10.1207/s15327876mp1003_3

[15] Duckworth, A. L., & Seligman, M. E. (2005). Self-Discipline Outdoes IQ in Predicting Academic Performance of Adolescents. Psychological Science, 16(12), 939-944. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2005.01641.x

[16] Verbal Language, Short-Term Memory, and Reasoning Measure Cognitive Performance Best

https://psychcentral.com/news/2013/01/01/verbal-language-short-term-memory-and-reasoning-measure-cognitive-performance-best/49871.html

[17] Beyond IQ: Broad-based measurement of individual success potential or “emotional intelligence” Mehrabian, Albert Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs; May 2000; 126, 2; ProQuest pg. 133

[18] What Do IQ Tests Test?: Interview with Psychologist W. Joel Schneider

Scott Kaufman – https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/beautiful-minds/what-do-iq-tests-test-interview-with-psychologist-w-joel-schneider/

[19] Battleday, R., & Brem, A. (2015). Modafinil for cognitive neuroenhancement in healthy non-sleep-deprived subjects: A systematic review. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 25(11), 1865-1881. doi:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2015.07.028

[20] Modafinil for cognitive neuroenhancement in healthy non-sleep-deprived subjects: A systematic review R.M. Battleday-A.-K. Brem – European Neuropsychopharmacology – 2015

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[22] ‘Smart Drug’ Modafinil Actually Works, Study Shows

Laura Geggel – http://www.livescience.com/51919-modafil-improves-attention-learning.html

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[27] Greely, H. (11 december, 2008). Smart drugs: the case for changing minds. Nature.

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[29]Zand, B. (2016, January 05). My ‘Smart Drugs’ Nightmare. BBC News.

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[31] Provigil – FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses

https://www.drugs.com/pro/provigil.html

[32]  Battleday, R., & Brem, A. (2015). Modafinil for cognitive neuroenhancement in healthy non-sleep-deprived subjects: A systematic review. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 25(11), 1865-1881. doi:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2015.07.028

[33] Provigil – FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses

https://www.drugs.com/pro/provigil.html

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By | 2017-06-15T14:30:01+00:00 June 15th, 2017|Uncategorized|Comments Off on Modafinil: A Thorough Review

About the Author:

The author is a widely published clinical researcher and long time user of modafinil. Clinical experience includes cancer diagnostics development. He has a special interest in the field of nootropics and cognitive enhancers.